Application Examples for Transmission Photometers


Our transmission photometers provide process technology to measure the concentration of a certain component of a liquid or a gas in real-time, online, and without contact.

One example is to monitor the moisture of a manufactured liquid chemical. In the case of excess moisture, a warning is issued to the main control board.

It is equally possible to detect production or process malfunctions if this results in the occurrence of a substance at a location where it is not usually encountered. One example is heavy water in the secondary cooling circuit of a nuclear power plant, which indicates a leakage of the primary circuit.

The measurement range and the accuracy depend on the given circumstances, as all components of a mixture can influence the measurement result. Another upper detection limit is reached when the signal is saturated (100% absorption at the measurement wavelength). Therefore, it is crucial to estimate the required measurement range beforehand so that suitable wavelength filters can be selected.

The following table illustrates some of the measurement cases that we have been able to configure for our customers.

Target Substance Host Material Detection Range(s)
Acetaldehyde Methanol 300 ppm
Acetylene Ammonia 50 %
Ammonia Hydrogen sulfide 500 ppm
Ammonia Water 10 %
Aniline Water 100 ppm, 200 ppm
Aniline Xylene 60 %
Gasoline Diesel fuel  
Benzene Nitrogen  
Hydrogen cyanide Hydantoin  
Butyl acetate Butanol 100 %
Caprolactam Water 1000 ppm
Catechol Butadiene 200 ppm
Chlorine Hydrogen chloride 100 ppm, 50 %
Chlorine CFC 100 ppm
Chlorine Air 700 ppm, 2000 ppm, 1 %, 2 %
Chlorine Phosgene 100 ppm, 500 ppm, 1000 ppm, 2000 ppm, 5000 ppm, 1 %, 2 %
Chlorine Nitrogen 3 %
Chlorine Trichloroethane 500 ppm
Chlorine Hydrogen 4 %
Chlorine dioxide Air 100 ppm
Hydrogen chloride Water 100 %
Diketene Acetoacetic acid 5 %
Dimethylacetamide Water 200 ppm, 500 ppm, 1000 ppm
Dimethylformamide Water 100 ppm, 200 ppm, 2000 ppm, 5 %, 10 %, 70 %
Dinitrogen tetroxide Nitroglycerin 45 %
Dinitrogen tetroxide Nitric acid 2000 ppm, 5000 ppm, 20 %
Iron hydroxide Water  
Acetic acid Butyl acetate 3000 ppm
Acetic anhydride Tetrahydrofuran 4 %, 10 %
Ethylbenzene Benzene 90 %
Ethylbenzene CFC 15 %
Ethylbenzene Styrene 35 %, 60 %
Ethylene oxide Water 1 %, 15 %
Glycol ether Butanol 20 %
Carbon monoxide Phosgene 10 %, 20 %
Methanol Toluene 100 %
Methanol Water 2 %, 15 %
Methyl pyrrolidone Water 100 ppm, 70 %
Sodium nitrate Water 1 %
Nitrobenzene Aniline 5000 ppm  
Nitrobenzene Water 2000 ppm
Grease Trichloroethane 1 %
Paraffin wax Carbon tetrachloride  
Phenol Bromine  
Phenol Cumene 3 %, 5%
Phenol Water 1000 ppm
Phthalic acid Cyclohexane dicarbonic isononyl ester 200 ppm
Mercury Air 50 µg/m³
Mercury Water  
Nitric acid Water 1 %
Hydrochloric acid Phosphorus trichloride  
Sulphur dioxide Sulphuric acid 100 ppm
Heavy water Water 500 ppm, 3000 ppm, 1 %, 2 %
Nitrogen dioxide Air 20 %
Nitrogen dioxide Nitrogen monoxide 200 ppm, 2000 ppm, 1 %
Nitrogen oxides Sulphuric acid 200 ppm
Styrene Ethylbenzene 2 %, 5 %, 50 %, 90 %
Toluene Water 600 ppm, 1000 ppm
Toluene diisocyanate Toluene 100 ppm
Water (moisture) Acetone 500 ppm, 1000 ppm, 3000 ppm, 1 %, 3 %, 10 %, 30 %
Water (moisture) Acetone cyanohydrin 1 %
Water (moisture) Acrylonitrile 1 %, 20 %
Water (moisture) Amines 2000 ppm, 30 %
Water (moisture) Ammonia 500 ppm, 1000 ppm, 5000 ppm, 5 %
Water (moisture) Aniline 1000 ppm, 200 mg/l
Water (moisture) Brake fluid 2500 ppm, 1 %, 2 %, 10 %
Water (moisture) Butanol 1 %, 15 %
Water (moisture) Butene 10 %
Water (moisture) Butyl acetate 1 %
Water (moisture) Caprolactam 600 ppm, 20 %
Water (moisture) Chloral 15 %
Water (moisture) Chlorobenzene 100 ppm
Water (moisture) Cyanogen chloride 2000 ppm
Water (moisture) Chloromethane 300 ppm
Water (moisture) Cyclohexane 2000 ppm
Water (moisture) Cyclohexanone oxime 5 %
Water (moisture) Dichlorobenzene 100 ppm, 200 ppm
Water (moisture) Dichlorobutane 400 ppm, 600 ppm
Water (moisture) Dichloroethane 100 ppm
Water (moisture) Dichloroethene 100 ppm, 200 ppm
Water (moisture) Dichloromethane 500 ppm
Water (moisture) Dichloropropane 200 ppm
Water (moisture) Diethylene glycol 1600 ppm, 4000 ppm
Water (moisture) Dimethylacetamide 500 ppm, 1000 ppm, 2000 ppm, 1 %
Water (moisture) Dimethylamine 1000 ppm, 1 %
Water (moisture) Dimethylaniline  
Water (moisture) Dimethylformamide 500 ppm, 1000 ppm, 2 %, 10 %, 50 %
Water (moisture) Dimethylsuccinate 5000 ppm
Water (moisture) Dipropylene glycol 300 ppm
Water (moisture) Photographic developer  
Water (moisture) Acetic acid 2000 ppm, 5 %, 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 60 %, 70 %
Water (moisture) Ethyl acetate 200 ppm, 2000 ppm, 2 %
Water (moisture) Ethanol 1000 ppm, 3000 ppm, 2 %, 8 %, 10 %
Water (moisture) Ethylenediamine 1 %
Water (moisture) Ethylene glycol 100 ppm, 500 ppm, 1500 ppm, 2000 ppm, 2 %, 30 %
Water (moisture) Ethylene oxide 1000 ppm
Water (moisture) Ethylpiperazine 3 %
Water (moisture) Grease 2000 ppm, 1 %
Water (moisture) Isoamyl ether 200 ppm
Water (moisture) Isopropylamine 1 %
Water (moisture) Air 10 %, 20 %
Water (moisture) Methacrylic acid 300 ppm
Water (moisture) Methanol 200 ppm, 1000 ppm, 1 %, 5 %, 30 %
Water (moisture) Methyl acetate 25 %, 50 %
Water (moisture) Methylcyclohexane 50 %
Water (moisture) Dichloromethane 500 ppm, 2000 ppm
Water (moisture) Butanone 1 %, 10 %
Water (moisture) Methyl pyrrolidone 700 ppm, 1000 ppm
Water (moisture) Nitroglycerin 5 %
Water (moisture) Paraffin 100 ppm
Water (moisture) Phenol 500 ppm, 5000 ppm, 8 %
Water (moisture) Propanol 1000 ppm, 2000 ppm, 5000 ppm, 20 %
Water (moisture) Propylene oxide 100 ppm, 200 ppm, 5 %
200 ppm
Water (moisture) Smoke 20 g/m³
Water (moisture) Nitric acid 5000 ppm, 3 %, 5 %, 10 %, 20 %
Water (moisture) Hydrochloric acid 1 %
Water (moisture) Sulphuric acid 25 %
Water (moisture) Heavy water 1 %, 5 %
Water (moisture) Silicone 100 ppm
Water (moisture) Spinning solution 3 %
Water (moisture) Sulfonic acid 25 %
Water (moisture) Carbon tetrachloride  
Water (moisture) Tetrahydrofuran (THF) 200 ppm, 1000 ppm, 2000 ppm, 8 %, 15 %
Water (moisture) Toluene 400 ppm, 1000 ppm, 5000 ppm, 1 %
Water (moisture) Triethylene glycol 2000 ppm
Water (moisture) Trimethylamine 5000 ppm
Water (moisture) Trioxane 100 ppm
Water (moisture) Tripropylene glycol 300 ppm
Water (moisture) Vinyl acetate 400 ppm, 1000 ppm
Water (moisture) Vinyl chloride 100 ppm, 400 ppm, 600 ppm
Xylene Water 500 ppm